VEX Robotics Motor Data - AndyMark RS775-125


Note: Published Specifications were taken from the AndyMark website and are current as of December 10, 2015. Experimental tests were performed using new motors that were purchased during the summer of 2015.

  Published Specification Experimental Data
Free Speed (RPM) 5700 5800
Free Current (A) N/A 1.6
Maximum Power (W) N/A 43
Stall Torque (N · m) 0.25 0.28
Stall Current (A) 22 18
The "Down-Up" Test: Why VEX provides the most accurate motor data possible

Learn more about using DC motors and motor curves to design robots





 

VEX Robotics Motor Data - AndyMark RS775-125

 
 

Note: Published Specifications were taken from the AndyMark website and are current as of December 10, 2015. Experimental tests were performed using new motors that were purchased during the summer of 2015.

 
  Published Specification Experimental Data
Free Speed (RPM) 5700 5800
Free Current (A) N/A 1.6
Maximum Power (W) N/A 43
Stall Torque (N · m) 0.25 0.28
Stall Current (A) 22 18
 
 

The "Down-Up" Dyno Test

VEX Robotics motor curves were developed experimentally using a “down-up” dyno test.

1. A motor is spun at free speed
2. A brake is slowly applied (linearly increasing in torque over time), bringing the motor down to a predetermined RPM
3. The brake is slowly released and the motor is allowed to return to its free speed

A variety of data, such as output speed, output torque, current draw, and power input/output, is taken throughout this test. The “down” (brake applied) side is then averaged with the “up” (brake released) side.

Why "Down-Up"?

The mechanics of a dyno test are crucial to developing and publishing accurate motor specifications. When a motor is spinning at free speed while attached to a dyno drum, the system contains a high amount of rotational inertia. This inertia complements the motor’s own output, creating a false reading for peak output power that can be higher than the motor’s actual performance.

However, manufacturers do not always adjust for inertia cancellation when measuring their motor’s performance, and spec sheets rarely detail the circumstances under which their information was derived.

By testing and averaging both the “down” (inertia helping the motor) and “up” (inertia resisting the motor) sides, this method is the best way to represent a motor’s true capacity.

Click to Expand Motor Curve Data

Click to download motor curve data (.CSV)

Speed (RPM)
Torque (N·m)
Current (A)
Supplied Power (W)
Output Power (W)
Efficiency (%)
Power Dissipation (W)
0
0.282865
17.687
212.244
0
0
212.244
58.018
0.280036
17.526
210.312
1.701
0.809
208.611
116.036
0.277208
17.366
208.392
3.368
1.616
205.024
174.054
0.274379
17.205
206.46
5.001
2.422
201.459
232.072
0.27155
17.044
204.528
6.599
3.226
197.929
290.09
0.268722
16.883
202.596
8.163
4.029
194.433
348.108
0.265893
16.723
200.676
9.693
4.83
190.983
406.126
0.263064
16.562
198.744
11.188
5.629
187.556
464.144
0.260236
16.401
196.812
12.649
6.427
184.163
522.162
0.257407
16.24
194.88
14.075
7.222
180.805
580.18
0.254579
16.08
192.96
15.467
8.016
177.493
638.198
0.25175
15.919
191.028
16.825
8.808
174.203
696.216
0.248921
15.758
189.096
18.148
9.597
170.948
754.233
0.246093
15.598
187.176
19.437
10.384
167.739
812.251
0.243264
15.437
185.244
20.692
11.17
164.552
870.269
0.240435
15.276
183.312
21.912
11.953
161.4
928.287
0.237607
15.115
181.38
23.098
12.735
158.282
986.305
0.234778
14.955
179.46
24.249
13.512
155.211
1044.323
0.231949
14.794
177.528
25.366
14.288
152.162

Speed (RPM)
Torque (N·m)
Current (A)
Supplied Power (W)
Output Power (W)
Efficiency (%)
Power Dissipation (W)
1102.341
0.229121
14.633
175.596
26.449
15.062
149.147
1160.359
0.226292
14.472
173.664
27.497
15.833
146.167
1218.377
0.223463
14.312
171.744
28.511
16.601
143.233
1276.395
0.220635
14.151
169.812
29.491
17.367
140.321
1334.413
0.217806
13.99
167.88
30.436
18.13
137.444
1392.431
0.214977
13.829
165.948
31.347
18.89
134.601
1450.449
0.212149
13.669
164.028
32.223
19.645
131.805
1508.467
0.20932
13.508
162.096
33.066
20.399
129.03
1566.485
0.206491
13.347
160.164
33.873
21.149
126.291
1624.503
0.203663
13.187
158.244
34.647
21.895
123.597
1682.521
0.200834
13.026
156.312
35.386
22.638
120.926
1740.539
0.198006
12.865
154.38
36.09
23.377
118.29
1798.557
0.195177
12.704
152.448
36.761
24.114
115.687
1856.575
0.192348
12.544
150.528
37.396
24.843
113.132
1914.593
0.18952
12.383
148.596
37.998
25.571
110.598
1972.611
0.186691
12.222
146.664
38.565
26.295
108.099
2030.629
0.183862
12.061
144.732
39.098
27.014
105.634
2088.647
0.181034
11.901
142.812
39.596
27.726
103.216
2146.665
0.178205
11.74
140.88
40.06
28.436
100.82
2204.682
0.175376
11.579
138.948
40.49
29.14
98.458
2262.7
0.172548
11.419
137.028
40.885
29.837
96.143
2320.718
0.169719
11.258
135.096
41.246
30.531
93.85
2378.736
0.16689
11.097
133.164
41.572
31.219
91.592
2436.754
0.164062
10.936
131.232
41.865
31.902
89.367
2494.772
0.161233
10.776
129.312
42.122
32.574
87.19
2552.79
0.158404
10.615
127.38
42.346
33.244
85.034
2610.808
0.155576
10.454
125.448
42.535
33.906
82.913
2668.826
0.152747
10.293
123.516
42.69
34.562
80.826
2726.844
0.149918
10.133
121.596
42.81
35.207
78.786
2784.862
0.14709
9.972
119.664
42.896
35.847
76.768
2842.88
0.144261
9.811
117.732
42.947
36.479
74.785
2900.898
0.141433
9.651
115.812
42.965
37.099
72.847
2958.916
0.138604
9.49
113.88
42.947
37.713
70.933
3016.934
0.135775
9.329
111.948
42.896
38.318
69.052
3074.952
0.132947
9.168
110.016
42.81
38.913
67.206
3132.97
0.130118
9.008
108.096
42.69
39.493
65.406
3190.988
0.127289
8.847
106.164
42.535
40.065
63.629
3249.006
0.124461
8.686
104.232
42.346
40.627
61.886
3307.024
0.121632
8.525
102.3
42.122
41.175
60.178

Speed (RPM)
Torque (N·m)
Current (A)
Supplied Power (W)
Output Power (W)
Efficiency (%)
Power Dissipation (W)
3365.042
0.118803
8.365
100.38
41.865
41.707
58.515
3423.06
0.115975
8.204
98.448
41.573
42.228
56.875
3481.078
0.113146
8.043
96.516
41.246
42.735
55.27
3539.096
0.110317
7.882
94.584
40.885
43.226
53.699
3597.114
0.107489
7.722
92.664
40.49
43.696
52.174
3655.131
0.10466
7.561
90.732
40.06
44.152
50.672
3713.149
0.101831
7.4
88.8
39.596
44.59
49.204
3771.167
0.099003
7.24
86.88
39.098
45.002
47.782
3829.185
0.096174
7.079
84.948
38.565
45.398
46.383
3887.203
0.093345
6.918
83.016
37.998
45.772
45.018
3945.221
0.090517
6.757
81.084
37.396
46.12
43.688
4003.239
0.087688
6.597
79.164
36.76
46.435
42.404
4061.257
0.08486
6.436
77.232
36.09
46.729
41.142
4119.275
0.082031
6.275
75.3
35.386
46.993
39.914
4177.293
0.079202
6.114
73.368
34.647
47.224
38.721
4235.311
0.076374
5.954
71.448
33.873
47.409
37.575
4293.329
0.073545
5.793
69.516
33.066
47.566
36.45
4351.347
0.070716
5.632
67.584
32.223
47.678
35.361
4409.365
0.067888
5.472
65.664
31.347
47.738
34.317
4467.383
0.065059
5.311
63.732
30.436
47.756
33.296
4525.401
0.06223
5.15
61.8
29.491
47.72
32.309
4583.419
0.059402
4.989
59.868
28.511
47.623
31.357
4641.437
0.056573
4.829
57.948
27.497
47.451
30.451
4699.455
0.053744
4.668
56.016
26.449
47.217
29.567
4757.473
0.050916
4.507
54.084
25.366
46.901
28.718
4815.491
0.048087
4.346
52.152
24.249
46.497
27.903
4873.509
0.045258
4.186
50.232
23.098
45.983
27.134
4931.527
0.04243
4.025
48.3
21.912
45.366
26.388
4989.545
0.039601
3.864
46.368
20.692
44.626
25.676
5047.563
0.036772
3.703
44.436
19.437
43.742
24.999
5105.58
0.033944
3.543
42.516
18.148
42.685
24.368
5163.598
0.031115
3.382
40.584
16.825
41.457
23.759
5221.616
0.028287
3.221
38.652
15.468
40.019
23.184
5279.634
0.025458
3.061
36.732
14.075
38.318
22.657
5337.652
0.022629
2.9
34.8
12.649
36.348
22.151
5395.67
0.019801
2.739
32.868
11.188
34.039
21.68
5453.688
0.016972
2.578
30.936
9.693
31.332
21.243
5511.706
0.014143
2.418
29.016
8.163
28.133
20.853
5569.724
0.011315
2.257
27.084
6.6
24.369
20.484

Speed (RPM)
Torque (N·m)
Current (A)
Supplied Power (W)
Output Power (W)
Efficiency (%)
Power Dissipation (W)
5627.742
0.008486
2.096
25.152
5.001
19.883
20.151
5685.76
0.005657
1.935
23.22
3.368
14.505
19.852
5743.778
0.002829
1.775
21.3
1.702
7.991
19.598
5801.796
0
1.614
19.368
0
0
19.368

Click to Collapse Motor Curve Data

Click to Expand 3 Minute Peak Power Test Data

Click to download peak power test data (.CSV)

Time (s)
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
0
11.96
54.149
0.363
11.97
53.969
0.766
11.95
53.885
1.17
11.97
53.599
1.55
11.98
53.948
1.934
11.96
53.586
2.284
11.92
52.826
2.634
11.89
52.307
3.019
11.91
52.913
3.401
11.91
52.742
3.762
11.91
52.706

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
4.109
11.9
53.28
4.486
11.87
52.611
4.836
11.85
53.049
5.223
11.82
52.778
5.604
11.8
52.929
5.963
11.79
52.121
6.314
11.76
52.157
6.689
11.76
51.357
7.039
11.73
51.711
7.387
11.68
52.313
7.737
11.64
52.224
8.124
11.63
52.017
8.477
11.63
51.192
8.838
11.6
51.106
9.186
11.57
50.596
9.563
11.54
51.014
9.911
11.52
50.345
10.263
11.51
51.554
10.61
11.51
51.245
10.96
11.49
51.766
11.309
11.48
50.613
11.685
11.45
51.432
12.034
11.44
50.131
12.384
11.41
50.643
12.733
11.37
50.641
13.083
11.34
49.899
13.46
11.32
50.204
13.834
11.28
50.001
14.184
11.23
49.639
14.532
11.22
50.503
14.892
11.22
50.419
15.247
11.2
50.038
15.607
11.19
50.038
15.957
11.18
48.635
16.321
11.17
49.741
16.684
11.19
49.062
17.049
11.15
49.731
17.408
11.14
48.905
17.784
11.12
49.127

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
18.132
11.12
48.579
18.481
11.1
48.886
18.83
11.1
48.188
19.18
11.08
49.592
19.555
11.07
49.453
19.904
11.06
49.722
20.255
11.06
49.23
20.604
11.07
49.137
20.952
11.05
48.802
21.301
11.05
48.031
21.678
11.03
48.579
22.027
10.99
47.993
22.376
10.97
48.272
22.725
10.94
47.306
23.075
10.92
48.281
23.452
10.92
48.477
23.817
10.9
48.533
24.176
10.9
48.421
24.571
10.89
48.886
24.955
10.88
48.023
25.332
10.88
48.328
25.679
10.86
48.31
26.029
10.84
47.583
26.379
10.82
48.272
26.755
10.84
47.732
27.103
10.83
48.292
27.452
10.84
47.24
27.801
10.83
47.4
28.15
10.79
46.655
28.527
10.77
47.481
28.877
10.75
46.487
29.225
10.74
48.049
29.574
10.73
47.874
29.925
10.72
48.17
30.301
10.72
47.066
30.649
10.71
48.169
31
10.72
47.697
31.347
10.71
46.683
31.698
10.7
47.316

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
32.047
10.71
47.093
32.397
10.7
47.603
32.755
10.69
46.226
33.112
10.68
46.414
33.471
10.65
47.035
33.821
10.63
47.195
34.171
10.63
46.675
34.545
10.62
47.78
34.895
10.62
46.982
35.244
10.6
47.603
35.594
10.6
47.017
35.942
10.59
46.069
36.292
10.58
46.543
36.642
10.57
46.013
37.017
10.55
46.969
37.366
10.55
46.916
37.716
10.52
47.185
38.064
10.52
46.815
38.441
10.52
47.286
38.791
10.52
46.331
39.14
10.52
45.445
39.488
10.51
45.863
39.838
10.49
45.501
40.188
10.48
45.93
40.546
10.46
45.522
40.93
10.45
46.515
41.29
10.41
45.644
41.666
10.41
47.007
42.053
10.4
46.533
42.434
10.4
46.069
42.793
10.41
45.595
43.143
10.4
44.814
43.544
10.39
45.601
43.894
10.4
45.891
44.244
10.41
45.556
44.594
10.39
45.93
44.969
10.4
46.181
45.318
10.4
45.807
45.668
10.39
46.108

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
46.017
10.38
44.742
46.42
10.37
45.243
46.769
10.34
44.686
47.117
10.33
45.211
47.467
10.34
44.797
47.815
10.31
45.149
48.191
10.29
45.327
48.541
10.29
45.958
48.891
10.29
45.132
49.24
10.3
46.386
49.589
10.29
45.466
49.938
10.28
45.249
50.315
10.28
45.539
50.663
10.27
45.003
51.015
10.25
45.149
51.4
10.24
45.194
51.755
10.23
44.926
52.115
10.23
44.368
52.464
10.22
44.496
52.815
10.22
45.996
53.173
10.21
44.932
53.556
10.2
44.089
53.916
10.2
44.664
54.319
10.19
43.933
54.667
10.19
44.736
55.016
10.2
44.396
55.391
10.21
43.994
55.742
10.22
46.16
56.091
10.22
46.181
56.44
10.23
44.965
56.789
10.23
46.254
57.138
10.23
45.355
57.516
10.23
44.758
57.862
10.22
45.188
58.213
10.21
45.099
58.561
10.21
45.26
58.912
10.22
44.407
59.287
10.19
45.216
59.637
10.18
43.782
60.038
10.18
44.915
Time (s)
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
60.408
10.17
45.02
60.765
10.16
43.81
61.112
10.16
44.647
61.474
10.16
45.333
61.839
10.15
44.786
62.202
10.15
44.954
62.591
10.15
45.539
62.939
10.14
44.909
63.288
10.14
43.699
63.639
10.14
44.491
63.987
10.14
43.671

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
64.336
10.14
44.34
64.697
10.14
43.799
65.051
10.14
44.368
65.412
10.14
44.585
65.76
10.14
45.556
66.111
10.13
44.368
66.485
10.12
43.71
66.835
10.12
44.256
67.184
10.11
43.487
67.533
10.09
44.507
67.883
10.09
43.448
68.232
10.08
45.428
68.608
10.07
44.24
68.958
10.06
45.344
69.308
10.04
44.112
69.709
10.03
44.971
70.06
10.03
44.156
70.409
10.04
45.166
70.795
10.04
43.95
71.151
10.04
43.097
71.509
10.04
43.659
71.858
10
43.085
72.209
10.01
44.061
72.583
10.01
43.332
72.933
10.01
44.887
73.283
10.01
43.822
73.631
10
45.009
73.98
10
43.527
74.33
9.98
44.909
74.707
9.98
43.883
75.076
9.98
43.922
75.458
9.97
43.771
75.807
9.98
43.604
76.156
9.97
43.571
76.506
9.97
43.633
76.856
9.97
44.647
77.204
9.97
43.627
77.58
9.97
43.599
77.93
9.95
43.531

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
78.278
9.97
42.846
78.628
9.95
44.089
78.977
9.95
43.643
79.327
9.94
44.005
79.675
9.93
43.599
80.052
9.92
43.269
80.402
9.92
43.454
80.751
9.91
42.193
81.1
9.89
43.101
81.449
9.88
42.137
81.825
9.88
42.962
82.175
9.88
42.221
82.524
9.87
43.308
82.873
9.88
43.436
83.222
9.88
43.376
83.572
9.88
43.448
83.949
9.88
43.359
84.312
9.89
43.431
84.673
9.89
43.431
85.032
9.9
42.332
85.386
9.89
43.404
85.747
9.9
42.531
86.096
9.91
43.32
86.446
9.89
42.595
86.806
9.85
42.755
87.19
9.84
42.751
87.548
9.84
43.727
87.898
9.84
43.225
88.273
9.85
42.053
88.622
9.84
42.444
88.972
9.83
41.982
89.322
9.83
42.567
89.669
9.83
42.639
90.046
9.83
42.36
90.396
9.83
43.615
90.744
9.82
43.715
91.094
9.83
42.233
91.443
9.82
43.002
91.791
9.81
43.013

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
92.151
9.81
42.432
92.534
9.8
42.918
92.894
9.79
43.476
93.253
9.78
43.448
93.635
9.76
42.906
93.996
9.76
43.006
94.371
9.8
42.711
94.719
9.82
42.448
95.068
9.83
42.969
95.417
9.81
41.66
95.767
9.8
42.611
96.126
9.8
41.743
96.509
9.79
43.157
96.868
9.78
41.635
97.217
9.78
41.635
97.595
9.79
41.734
97.996
9.8
41.898
98.362
9.79
43.548
98.723
9.78
41.954
99.07
9.78
43.448
99.421
9.73
43.436
99.798
9.76
42.934
100.199
9.76
41.452
100.565
9.75
42.567
100.923
9.75
41.635
101.274
9.73
43.285
101.623
9.74
42.551
102
9.73
42.069
102.364
9.72
41.926
102.724
9.72
41.93
103.099
9.71
42.376
103.448
9.72
42.312
103.8
9.73
43.157
104.148
9.72
42.484
104.497
9.73
41.412
104.874
9.72
42.595
105.222
9.72
41.551
105.572
9.71
42.193
105.922
9.71
42.288
106.271
9.69
41.858

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
106.63
9.69
41.958
107.013
9.68
41.217
107.373
9.69
42.316
107.749
9.69
41.567
108.137
9.69
42.137
108.517
9.68
41.105
108.877
9.67
41.161
109.28
9.67
41.942
109.628
9.64
41.381
109.978
9.64
41.846
110.327
9.64
41.926
110.676
9.63
41.496
111.054
9.64
41.511
111.418
9.63
40.867
111.777
9.62
41.623
112.139
9.62
41.037
112.501
9.63
41.468
112.852
9.63
41.44
113.201
9.62
42.806
113.552
9.65
41.747
113.954
9.64
42.783
114.303
9.65
41.811
114.65
9.66
42.806
115.002
9.65
41.691
115.378
9.64
41.08
115.743
9.64
41.79
116.102
9.65
41.775
116.477
9.65
41.87
116.827
9.64
41.827
117.176
9.64
41.775
117.526
9.64
41.914
117.873
9.65
41.759
118.234
9.65
40.925
118.606
9.64
40.811
119.002
9.64
41.551
119.369
9.62
40.854
119.728
9.64
41.328
120.076
9.63
41.242
120.453
9.62
42.543
Time (s)
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
120.802
9.62
41.576
121.151
9.61
42.332
121.501
9.61
41.381
121.852
9.6
41.443
122.224
9.61
41.663
122.575
9.62
41.635
122.925
9.62
41.396
123.274
9.62
41.607
123.624
9.62
41.97
123.972
9.61
41.551
124.349
9.64
42.209

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
124.698
9.65
41.616
125.048
9.64
40.895
125.434
9.61
41.037
125.789
9.6
41.567
126.149
9.61
41.611
126.497
9.62
40.994
126.847
9.63
40.616
127.206
9.61
42.081
127.562
9.59
41.009
127.922
9.59
40.882
128.271
9.58
41.536
128.619
9.59
41.607
128.97
9.6
40.978
129.346
9.61
41.133
129.694
9.6
41.734
130.044
9.59
40.814
130.393
9.58
41.483
130.742
9.57
41.942
131.118
9.57
40.814
131.467
9.57
41.288
131.815
9.58
40.771
132.166
9.59
41.846
132.568
9.59
40.547
132.918
9.59
41.707
133.266
9.6
41.034
133.616
9.6
41.424
133.965
9.59
40.644
134.34
9.58
40.492
134.691
9.57
40.981
135.077
9.55
41.049
135.46
9.54
41.186
135.818
9.53
40.619
136.168
9.54
41.118
136.545
9.54
40.114
136.946
9.53
40.854
137.313
9.53
40.591
137.671
9.52
41.4
138.021
9.51
40.717
138.371
9.54
40.241

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
138.748
9.54
41.245
139.134
9.55
41.273
139.516
9.56
40.814
139.877
9.57
41.344
140.262
9.58
40.826
140.617
9.59
41.102
140.976
9.59
40.923
141.326
9.57
41.775
141.702
9.56
41.217
142.05
9.56
41.164
142.4
9.58
40.978
142.75
9.56
40.659
143.098
9.56
40.421
143.448
9.55
40.492
143.808
9.54
40.783
144.162
9.54
41.006
144.523
9.53
41.316
144.871
9.53
40.755
145.222
9.52
41.455
145.569
9.51
40.631
145.947
9.53
40.854
146.297
9.51
40.575
146.699
9.51
40.284
147.065
9.51
40.715
147.424
9.51
40.213
147.773
9.5
40.324
148.149
9.5
40.839
148.499
9.5
40.743
148.848
9.5
40.854
149.197
9.51
39.724
149.585
9.51
40.269
149.939
9.51
39.795
150.298
9.51
40.254
150.648
9.5
39.878
151.007
9.51
40.522
151.389
9.51
39.807
151.75
9.51
40.966
152.153
9.51
40.727
152.503
9.51
41.189

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
152.905
9.5
40.768
153.255
9.5
39.934
153.657
9.51
41.316
154.007
9.51
39.863
154.354
9.51
40.324
154.705
9.51
40.727
155.053
9.49
41.049
155.404
9.5
40.727
155.779
9.49
41.217
156.129
9.48
40.601
156.479
9.48
41.288
156.828
9.49
40.129
157.177
9.49
39.878
157.58
9.47
39.878
157.929
9.47
39.599
158.278
9.47
39.642
158.655
9.47
40.284
159.002
9.47
40.616
159.353
9.49
41.4
159.702
9.49
40.783
160.052
9.49
39.904
160.4
9.47
40.352
160.751
9.46
39.642
161.127
9.46
40.101
161.475
9.46
39.389
161.826
9.44
40.479
162.176
9.45
40.449
162.576
9.45
40.631
162.926
9.45
40.421
163.274
9.44
40.033
163.623
9.44
39.934
164
9.45
39.571
164.349
9.41
39.683
164.698
9.41
39.181
165.048
9.41
39.194
165.398
9.41
39.642
165.746
9.42
39.975
166.122
9.41
39.797
166.472
9.41
40.142

Time
Current (A)
Power Out (W)
166.858
9.41
39.055
167.239
9.41
40.438
167.599
9.42
39.531
167.949
9.42
41.022
168.325
9.42
39.291
168.675
9.4
40.743
169.076
9.39
40.086
169.426
9.38
40.159
169.775
9.4
40.142
170.123
9.4
40.395
170.474
9.4
39.571
170.822
9.39
40.56
171.199
9.37
40.702
171.547
9.38
39.767
171.897
9.39
40.018
172.246
9.4
39.809
172.596
9.41
40.101

Click to Collapse 3 Minute Peak Power Test Data

Click to download locked rotor stall test data (.ZIP)